"45% of the American population with chronic neck pain attributes it to a MVC (motor vehicle collision)"

     -Freeman MD, Croft AC, Rossignol AM, Centerno CJ, Elkins WL: Chronic neck pain and whiplash: A case-control study of the relationship between acute whiplash injuries and chronic neck pain. Pain Res Manag 11(2):79-83, 2006

"The reported threshold for soft tissue injury of the neck in healthy adult males is a (vehicle) delta V of 2.5 to 5 mph. (The threshold for more vulnerable persons may be lower.) Therefore, modern passenger vehicles can crash at velocities that are nearly twice this injury threshold, yet appear undamaged."

     -Hell W, Langwieder K, Walz F. Reported soft tissue neck injuries after rear-end car collisions. International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 16-18, 1998, Goteborg, Sweden, 261-274. 

"the acceleration of the human head in LOSRIC (low speed rear impact collision) could be up to 2-3 times (or more) higher than his vehicle because of the unique and complex occupant-vehicle coupling of this type of crash"

     -Severy DM, Mathewson JH, Bechtol CO: Controlled automobile rear-end collisions, an investigation of related engineering and mechanical phenomenon. Can Services Med J 11:727-758, 1955.

     -Severy DM, Mathewson JH: Automobile barrier and rear-end collision performance, Paper presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers summer meting, Atlantic City, NJ, June 8-13, 1958.

In a LOSRIC study where they crashes were graded as having no damage, 38% of females and 19% of males had symptoms. When damage was rated as minor, these percentages were 54% and 34%.

     -Chapline JF, Ferguson SA, Lillis RP, Lund AK, Williams AF: Neck pain and head restraint position relative to the driver's head in rear-end collisions. Accident Analysis and Prevention 32:287-297, 2000.