"45% of the American population with chronic neck pain attributes it to a MVC (motor vehicle collision)"
-Freeman MD, Croft AC, Rossignol AM, Centerno CJ, Elkins WL: Chronic neck pain and whiplash: A case-control study of the relationship between acute whiplash injuries and chronic neck pain. Pain Res Manag 11(2):79-83, 2006
"The reported threshold for soft tissue injury of the neck in healthy adult males is a (vehicle) delta V of 2.5 to 5 mph. (The threshold for more vulnerable persons may be lower.) Therefore, modern passenger vehicles can crash at velocities that are nearly twice this injury threshold, yet appear undamaged."
-Hell W, Langwieder K, Walz F. Reported soft tissue neck injuries after rear-end car collisions. International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 16-18, 1998, Goteborg, Sweden, 261-274.
"the acceleration of the human head in LOSRIC (low speed rear impact collision) could be up to 2-3 times (or more) higher than his vehicle because of the unique and complex occupant-vehicle coupling of this type of crash"
-Severy DM, Mathewson JH, Bechtol CO: Controlled automobile rear-end collisions, an investigation of related engineering and mechanical phenomenon. Can Services Med J 11:727-758, 1955.
-Severy DM, Mathewson JH: Automobile barrier and rear-end collision performance, Paper presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers summer meting, Atlantic City, NJ, June 8-13, 1958.
"Approximately 29% and 38% of individuals exposed to rear end impacts at 2.5 mph and 5 mph speed changes, respectively, experienced mild symptoms. These were relatively young and healthy volunteers seated in nearly ideal positions. Thus, the previously reported threshold for cervical soft tissue injury, which was set at 5 mph, appears too high. This is particularly true for persons in crashes where more risk factors are present."
-Brault JR, Wheeler JB, Siegmund GP, Brault EJ: Clinical response of human subjects to rear-end automobile collisions. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 79:72-80, 1998
In a LOSRIC study where they crashes were graded as having no damage, 38% of females and 19% of males had symptoms. When damage was rated as minor, these percentages were 54% and 34%.
-Chapline JF, Ferguson SA, Lillis RP, Lund AK, Williams AF: Neck pain and head restraint position relative to the driver's head in rear-end collisions. Accident Analysis and Prevention 32:287-297, 2000.